Binding characteristics of hypothalamic mu opioid receptors throughout the estrous cycle in the rat. Opioid-Induced GABA potentiation after chronic morphine attenuates the rewarding effects of opioids in the ventral tegmental area. Sex differences in the behavioral effects of 24-h/day access to cocaine under a discrete trial procedure. Gonadectomy but not biological sex affects burst-firing in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area and in prefrontal cortical neurons projecting to the ventral tegmentum in adult rats. ERbeta mediates the estradiol increase of D2 receptors in rat striatum and nucleus accumbens. Overexpression of CREB in the nucleus accumbens shell increases cocaine reinforcement in self-administering rats.
Inactivation of dorsolateral striatum enhances sensitivity to changes in the action-outcome contingency in instrumental conditioning. Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome activity prevents glutamate transporter stone mountain pet lodge blaine degradation and morphine tolerance. Differential distribution of CREB in the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway. Gender- and morphine dose-linked expression of spontaneous somatic opiate withdrawal in mice.
As such, a detailed withdrawal syndrome for the female phenotype is currently unknown. The human menstrual cycle has a 28-day duration and consists of follicular, periovulatory, and luteal phases. During the follicular phase (10–12 days), estradiol is secreted from the ovary as the follicle develops and circulating concentrations of E2 increase daily. The next phase is the peri-ovulatory phase (2–4 days) during which a surge of E2 prompts the release of luteinizing hormone from the pituitary that induces ovulation. The next phase is the luteal phase (10–12 days) which is characterized by the release of relatively high concentrations of both E2 and progesterone from the remains of the ruptured follicle .
You must register your card with your checking account and use it to pay for your gas to get the discount. Blockade of NMDA receptors in the dorsomedial striatum prevents action-outcome learning in instrumental conditioning. Patterns of overlap and segregation between insular cortical, intermediodorsal thalamic and basal amygdaloid afferents in the nucleus accumbens of the rat. Estradiol increases the sensitivity of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons to dopamine and ethanol. Comparative distribution of estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta mRNA in the rat central nervous system.
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