FDA-Approved Pharmacotherapy for Weight Loss Over the Last Decade

Body weight (assessed to the nearest 0.1 kg) was measured at each visit for all six studies. Height and waist circumference were also measured in each study using the same methodology. Subjects treated with NB or placebo in the six studies and with baseline, week 16, and week 56 data were pooled to constitute the overall population of the current analysis. Among NB-treated subjects, only those who were on the approved NB dose (ER naltrexone 32 mg/ER bupropion 360 mg) or placebo and who had a week 16 weight measurement were included.

Discontinuation of treatment related to adverse effects including nausea, vomiting, constipation, dry mouth, and dizziness has been reported . Further limitations include the inability to use naltrexone in patients taking opioid analgesics, while bupropion is contraindicated with medications that lower seizure threshold and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Like other FDA-approved pharmacotherapy, naltrexone-bupropion can be prescribed for the appropriate patient population to benefit from its effects on weight loss and metabolic profile. However, due to its sympathomimetic effects, it should not be used in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. More studies need to be performed to further assess the long-term safety and benefits related to cardiovascular and metabolic health.

Some studies in rats have shown that ingestion of palatable foods (e.g., sweets) leads to increased levels of β-endorphin in the hypothalamus. This finding led to the opioid-mediated palatability hypothesis, which assumes that opioid release has an expression on food palatability and vice versa. Bupropion is characterized as an antidepressant that inhibits the reuptake akbar v body of dopamine and noradrenaline. Increased levels of these 2 catecholamines stimulate the activity of pro-opiomelanocortin producing neurons, located in the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. The POMC consists of a precursor polypeptide and its cleavage gives rise to, among other products, ∂-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (∂-MSH) and ß-endorphin, an endogenous opioid.

It accomplishes this work by reorienting macrophages toward anti-inflammation. If your body is resistant to insulin, your cells will consume more sugar, causing you to gain weight. This weight gain also increases your risk of Alzheimer’s and heart diseases. A direct link exists between lack of sleep and weight gain. Inadequate sleep can also lead to increased inflammation, which impacts obesity in the myriad ways detailed above. Sleep troubles and obesity can lock you in a continuous cycle, as obesity leads to sleep apnea, making it more difficult to get the proper rest you desperately need.

If this doesn’t help, you may need to switch to a different treatment. Call your doctor right away if you have an allergic reaction to Topamax, as the reaction could become severe. You may wonder how often certain side effects occur with this drug or whether certain side effects pertain to it. Here’s some detail on certain side effects this drug may or may not cause. One possibly serious side effect is more common in children than in adults.

Do not start taking naltrexone and bupropion combination during the 2 weeks after you stop a MAO inhibitor. Wait 2 weeks after stopping naltrexone and bupropion combination before you start taking a MAO inhibitor. If you take them together or do not wait 2 weeks, you may have confusion, agitation, restlessness, stomach or bowel symptoms, a sudden high body temperature, an extremely high blood pressure, or severe seizures. The efficacy and safety of Naltrexone and Bupropion for obesity treatment were evaluated in a study by Georgios A. Christou and Dimitrios N. Kiortsis.

If people use a drug such as morphine, heroin, or codeine while taking Naltrexone, they won’t experience the feeling of getting high, a prevalent sensation with these types of drugs. It demonstrated sustained weight loss with both doses of Phen/Top through 2years. Topiramate is a medication used to treat Substance Use Disorders, primarily alcoholism and stimulant abuse. Topiramate is metabolized in the liver and excreted from the body in the urine. In the 12th week of the experiment animals were weighed and euthanized by anesthetic overdose with sodium thiopental.